When Your Head Hurts: Trigeminal And Occipital Neuralgia
There is one trigeminal nerve on each side of the face, and each nerve splits into three branches. It provides sensory innervation to the face and motor innervation to the muscles that are used for chewing and swallowing.
- The first branch is the ophthalmic nerve (V1), which covers the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose, and frontal sinuses.
- The second branch is the maxillary nerve (V2), which covers the lower eyelid, cheek, upper lip, teeth, and gums, the nasal mucosa, the palate, part of the pharynx, the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses.
- The third branch is the mandibular nerve (V3), which covers the lower lip, teeth, and gums, the floor of the mouth, the anterior ? of the tongue, the chin, the jaw, and parts of the external ear. The mandibular branch is the nerve that also provides the motor function.
- All three branches supply parts of the meninges
Pain from trigeminal neuralgia can be occasional twinges, regular episodes of severe pain, constant pain, or volleys of painful attacks that come and go regularly for days or weeks at a time. Activities like eating, talking, or even feeling a breeze on the cheek can sometimes trigger an attack.
Trigeminal neuralgia pain may be limited to the area affected by one branch of the trigeminal nerve. The pain is usually limited to one side of the face, but in some rare cases there might be pain on both sides of the face. In extremely rare cases, pain may be felt at the same time on both sides of the face.